Fossil remains in Grimaldi, Italy, of two human skeletons, were found in the lower Aurignacian layer (dated around 22,000 years ago) in June 1901, by the Canon de Villeneuve. The two skeletons appeared markedly different from the Cro-Magnon skeletons found higher in the cave and in other caves around Balzi Rossi. The remains were originally classified as Negroid by Boule and Vallois (1921).

The Grotte dei fanciulli held Aurignacian artifacts and reindeer remains from the upper layers. The lower layers exhibited a more tropical fauna with Merck's rhinoceros, hippopotamus and straight-tusked elephant. The lowermost horizon held Mousterian tools. The Grimaldi skeletons were found in the lower Aurignacian layer, one being a woman past 50, the other of an adolescent boy, 16 or 17.